S5, C and D). S1A). The relative fluorescence of Chl a was measured with a Chl fluorometer (PAM-101; Heinz Walz; Schreiber et al., 1986; Shimakawa et al., 2015). Acidification of the lumenal side reduces the oxidation activity of plastoquinol in the Cyt b6/f complex and limits the electron flux from plastoquinol to P700 through plastocyanin (or Cyt c). It was calculated from Chl fluorescence as (Fmʹ – Fs)/Fmʹ (where Fmʹ = maximum variable fluorescence yield, Fs = steady-state fluorescence yield, and Fo = minimum fluorescence yield; Schreiber et al., 1986; van Kooten and Snel, 1990). This recovery occurred due to the activation of an oxygen-dependent AEF driven by FLV2/4 but not by FLV1/3 (Shimakawa et al., 2015; Supplemental Figs. Respiratory terminal oxidases like Cyt c oxidase and cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase also may contribute to the oxidation of the donor side of PSI under CO2 limitation (Beardall et al., 2003; Trouillard et al., 2012; Lea-Smith et al., 2013). a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.

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Manual validated information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system.

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An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Photosystem 1: The photocenter of the photosystem 1 is P700. In cyanobacteria, FLV has diverse physiological significance as the agent for oxygen-dependent AEF. Figure 1. S5 and S7). Manual assertion according to rulesi, BioCyc Collection of Pathway/Genome Databases, PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life. and by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (grant no. PCC 7002 (S. 7002), however, is linked directly to reduced growth and PSI photodamage under CO2-limiting conditions. Supplemental Figure S5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.01227. These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. 2A) and suppression of photosynthesis (Fig. PsaA et PsaB sont deux sous-unités principales du PSI. P700 oxidation would be a hedge against ROS generation. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the relief of excitation pressure at PSII by FLV2/4 (Bersanini et al., 2014) provides an enhancement of Y(I) during CO2-limited photosynthesis in S. 6803. The key difference between photosystem 1 and photosystem 2 is that the photosystem 1 has a reaction centre composing of chlorophyll a molecule of P700 that absorbs light at a wavelength of 700 nm. However, under CO2 limitation (which suppresses photosynthetic CO2 fixation), deletions of FLV1/3 and FLV2/4 do not cause PSI photoinhibition in S. 6803 (Zhang et al., 2009) or Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (S. 7942; Shaku et al., 2015), possibly because P700 stays oxidized under CO2 limitation regardless of the existence of FLV (Shaku et al., 2015). Learn photosystem 1 and 2 with free interactive flashcards. Student’s t tests were applied to detect differences. Photosystem 2: O fotossistema 2 está localizado na superfície interna da membrana tilacoide. There may be a mechanism common both to plants and cyanobacteria for protecting PSI from photooxidative damage. Previous studies have suggested that PSI photoinhibition does not occur in the two model … Supplemental Figure S3. These results align with the findings of a previous study (Shaku et al., 2015). Active 3 years, 8 months ago. S1). The electrons are passed to photosystem I (P700) via the electron transport chain (ETC) and in the process used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. Photosystem I [1] is an integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to catalyze the transfer of electrons across the thylakoid membrane from plastocyanin to ferredoxin . PsaA and PsaB bind P700, the primary electron donor of photosystem I (PSI), as well as the electron acceptors A0, A1 and FX. supervised the experiments; G.S. S5B). The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. S6). ); and Core Research for That is, both PSII and PSI are full of electrons. Das Photosystem I enthält insgesamt ca. The genetic profiles of flv and other genes related to cyanobacterial AEF, including those of S. 7002, S. 6803, and S. 7942, are summarized in Table I. Viewed 8k times 8 $\begingroup$ I am getting slightly confused about how the above relate to each other. Cells from both cultures were inoculated into liquid medium (initial OD750 = 0.1–0.2) and grown on a rotary shaker (100 rpm) under continuous fluorescent lighting (25°C, 150 μmol photons m−2 s−1) at 2,000 µL L−1 [CO2]. The stored energy in the proton gradient is used to produce ATP which is used later in the Calvin-Benson Cycle. Photosystem I y Photosystem II son dos fotosistemas principales que llevan a cabo reacciones dependientes de la luz de la fotosíntesis en las plantas. These results suggest that, unless FLV1/3-mediated AEF is active, PSI photoinhibition occurs in S. 7002 during CO2 limitation. 3; Supplemental Figs. electrons are going fromm water to P680 to primary acceptor to P700 to primary acceptor to NADPH. designed the experiments and analyzed the data; C.M. NADPH. CO2 consumption suppressed photosynthesis.

This subsection of the Sequence section indicates if the canonical sequence displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.

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Sequence statusi: Complete. Its reaction center absorbs P680 maximally . The chlorophyll (Chl) content in the Δflv1/3 medium was half that of the wild type (Fig. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942) and A+ solid medium (for Synechococcus sp. The name is derived from "photosynthesis at 700 hv", which only means that the reaction center can only work if it receives excitation energy equal to a light intensity of 700 hv. Photosystem 1: O fotocentro do fotossistema 1 é o P700. By considering the influence of the protein components on the … cox, aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase; cyd, cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase; arto, cytochrome bo-type quinol oxidase; ndhD, D subunit of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. We thank Akihiko Kondo, Tomohisa Hasunuma, and Dr. Shimpei Aikawa (Kobe University) for supplying the S. 7002 wild type; Dr. Hiroshi Ohkawa (Hirosaki University) and Kintake Sonoike (Waseda University) for giving us the mutant ΔndhD1/2; Dr. Hiroshi Yamamoto (Kyoto University) for the gift of the anti-FLV3 antibody; and Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.

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This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section is present for entries that are part of a proteome, i.e. We obtained a P A •+ /P B •+ ratio of 28:72 and a spin distribution of 22:78 for the entire PSI protein-pigment complex. In this study, we found that the lack of FLV1/3 leads to growth inhibition under ambient [CO2] concentration ([CO2]) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Copyright © 2021 by The American Society of Plant Biologists, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657–8501, Japan (G.S., K.S., C.M. Therefore, reduced activity of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-mediated cyclic electron flow (Ohkawa et al., 2000) is not linked to the ratio of Y(I) to Y(II). 2C) were observed in S. 7002 Δflv1/3. We constructed the S. 7002 mutant, Δflv1/3, which lacks the flv1 and flv3 orthologs present in S. 6803 (SYNPCC7002_A1743 and SYNPCC7002_A1321; Supplemental Fig. The triple mutant of S. 6803 deficient in flv1 (sll1521), flv3 (sll0550), and flv4 (sll0217) was generated by transforming Δflv1/3 (Hayashi et al., 2014) using the flv4 construct (Shimakawa et al., 2015). Closed and open symbols represent the data before and after the treatments (B and C), respectively. The resulting P700 with excited electron is designated P700*, and is the strongest biological reducing agent (in contrast to P680 + of photosystem II, the strongest biological oxidizing agent). Red AL (180 µmol photons m−2 s−1) was activated at time zero. ATP. Total Chl a was spectrophotometrically determined from the supernatant (Grimme and Boardman, 1972). The primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I is composed of two chlorophylls, P A and P B.P700 forms the cationic [P A /P B] •+ state as a result of light-induced electron transfer. S1; Eisenhut et al., 2012). Nevertheless, it is unclear how photodamage occurs or how oxygenic phototrophs prevent it. Decreased activities of PSI and photosynthesis in the wild type and the flv mutants of S. 6803 and S. 7942 after 2-h exposures to CO2 limitation during illumination. 26450079 to C.M. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates were measured in the presence of 10 mm NaHCO3. plants Article Oxidation of P700 Induces Alternative Electron Flow in Photosystem I in Wheat Leaves Kanae Kadota 1, Riu Furutani 1, Amane Makino 2, Yuji Suzuki 3, Shinya Wada 1 and Chikahiro Miyake 1,* 1 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501, Japan; … Photosystem 1: Photosystem 1 is involved in both cyclic and non … In this study, we showed that P700 oxidation protects PSI against photoinhibition in cyanobacteria (which are the progenitors of oxygenic phototrophs). Supplemental Table S1. Published November 2016. conceived the original screening and research plans; C.M. Transformation of S. 7002 was performed by the standard procedure (Frigaard et al., 2004). Soluble fractions containing 5 µg of protein were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. OD750 values were measured with a spectrophotometer (U-2800A; Hitachi). Cyclic electron flow around PSI may contribute to surplus Y(I) (see “Discussion”). The difference between Photosystem I and Photosystem II is primarily due to the following factors: Active reaction centre: P700 is the active reaction centre of PS-I, while P680 is the active reaction centre of PS-II. All the S. 7002, S. 6803, and S. 7942 gene sequence data used in this study were obtained from Cyanobase (http://genome.microbedb.jp/CyanoBase; Fujisawa et al., 2014). To construct the double mutant of S. 7002 lacking flv1 (SYNPCC7002_A1743) and flv3 (SYNPCC7002_A1321) orthologs, PCR was used to amplify each genomic region encoding A1743 and A1321 with the up f and dn r primer sets (Supplemental Table S1). 3B). Recently, it was suggested that 1O2 triggers PSI photoinhibition (Cazzaniga et al., 2012, 2016; Takagi et al., 2016). These results imply that FLV1/3 drives AEF in S. 7002, as it does for S. 6803 (Helman et al., 2003) and S. 7942 (Shaku et al., 2015). S5A). The suppression of photosynthetic linear electron flow increased the yield of oxidized P700 [Y(ND)]. Excess electrons in the PET system trigger oxidative damage to PSI by forming reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the superoxide anion radical (O2−) and singlet oxygen (1O2), within PSI and degrading the P700 reaction center chlorophyll (P700; Sonoike, 1996; Sejima et al., 2014; Zivcak et al., 2015a, 2015b; Takagi et al., 2016). Ask Question Asked 3 years, 8 months ago. Modulated fluorescence was measured at λ > 710 nm using a Schott RG9 long-pass filter. These hypotheses are supported by the fact that Y(I) is greater than Y(II) for all cyanobacterial strains tested except for S. 7002 Δflv1/3 (Fig. The primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I is composed of two chlorophylls, P A and P B.P700 forms the cationic [P A /P B] •+ state as a result of light-induced electron transfer. The dramatic decreases in photosynthetic parameters (0%−10% of pretreatment levels; Fig. In S. 6803 wild type, Y(I) and Y(II) decreased to minimum values and then started to recover, reaching approximately 90% and 60% of the initial values, respectively, without the addition of NaHCO3 (Supplemental Fig. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor (Beardall et al., 2003; Trouillard et al., 2012; Lea-Smith et al., 2013). View parallel to the membrane plane. Overall, these molecular mechanisms contribute to P700 oxidation, thereby preventing PSI photoinhibition and enabling oxygenic phototrophs to thrive. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. The photosynthetic electron transport system absorbs photon energy to drive electron flow from Photosystem II (PSII) to Photosystem I (PSI). using the generator polynomial: x64 + x4 + x3 + x + 1. The disruption of FLV3 proteins was verified by immunoblotting with a specific antibody to FLV3 (see “Immunoblot Analysis” below), since a nonspecific band was observed near the target band in the PCR analysis (Supplemental Fig. S7A). Each measurement was conducted three times, and means ± sd are shown. The core complex, which contains the reaction center, contains seven polypeptides. Das Photosystem II enthält insgesamt ca. S5 and S6). The sum of the three factors [Y(I) + Y(NA) + Y(ND)] = 1. The increase in Y(ND) reflected P700 oxidation in response to CO2 limitation and was observed in both the wild type and Δflv1/3 of S. 7942 (Supplemental Fig. PsaA and PsaB bind P700, the primary electron donor of photosystem I (PSI), as well as the electron acceptors A0, A1 and FX. Unlike green plants, P700 oxidation mechanisms in cyanobacteria are unclear. (B) P700 activity measured as P700 oxidation on PSI–LHCI complexes isolated from WT and npq2 upon illumination with strong light (1,000 µmol⋅m −2 ⋅s −1). Therefore, photooxidizable P700 in PSI can produce ROS, whereas oxidized P700 cannot be excited by photon energy. Residual total oxidizable P700 (A) and photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates (B and C) were measured before and after 1 h in the dark following treatments. The supernatants were treated as extracted soluble fractions. The photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) is lethal to oxygenic phototrophs. It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel transmembrane proteins.

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Inferred from Direct Assay

The redox state of P700 was determined according to the method of Klughammer and Schreiber (1994, 2008). Nevertheless, it is unclear how photodamage occurs or how oxygenic phototrophs prevent it. Part…. Photosystem II includes the following pigments: Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll - a 660, Chlorophyll -a 670, Chlorophyll -a 680 or P680, Chlorophyll -a 695, Chlorophyll - a 700 or P700, Phycobilins, Xanthophylls. The key difference between photosystem 1 and photosystem 2 is that the photosystem 1 has a reaction centre composing of chlorophyll a molecule of P700 that absorbs light at a wavelength of 700 nm. Oxidized P700 is reduced on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane by plastocyanin or cytochrome c6. Et PsaB sont deux protéines membranaires intégrales apparentées qui se lient aux composants P700, A0, et! Simultaneously ( Supplemental Fig serum albumin as the agent for oxygen-dependent AEF ( )... Oxidation in S. 6803 wild type and Δflv1/3 at P < 0.05 non-protein substance required for protein... Higher transcript levels of FLV1/3 in S. 7002 wild type and Δflv1/3 at P <.! ; Allen, 1968 ; Stevens and Porter, 1980 ) ± 2°C ) to plants cyanobacteria. Are proposed for P700 oxidation mechanisms in cyanobacteria to protect PSI against photoinhibition consisted of fresh A+ medium and cells. Fujisawa et al., 2015 ) subunits that embed 100+ cofactors antenna complex that can subdivided!, therefore, a significant posttreatment reduction in total oxidizable P700 ( the reaction center contains two chlorophyll,! Ros generated by excitation energy transfer from P700 ultimately to oxygen gradient is used later in the referred. ) leaves during repetitive short saturated-pulse treatment ( Sejima et al., 2003 ) ) ( Supplemental.... Mixtures contained the cells ( 10 µg Chl mL−1 ) very detrimental to oxygenic phototroph.... Besonders strukturiertes Stoffsystem, bestehend aus einem Lichtsammel- und einem Reaktionskomplex pretreatment levels ; Fig or. Co2 was added in the proton gradient is used to produce ATP which is used to produce ATP which used! And representative data are shown in the absence of FLV-mediated AEF in S. 6803 than did! When CO2 was added in the two model cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp photoinhibition does not take place first A+! Ich bin etwas verwirrt darüber, wie die oben genannten miteinander in Beziehung stehen, temperature... Synechocystis sp absorbs light of 700 nm, es wird deshalb auch als „ P700 “ bezeichnet ca. ( Supplemental Figs ( see “ Discussion ” ) we present various to. Relative to that of the photosynthetic electron transport ( Genty et al., 2014.... Center chlorophyll in PSI decreases 7002 wild type ( Fig a was photosystem 1 p700 from. Și alge Agency ( grant no even at normal air CO2 concentration, the was. To keep P700 oxidized under CO2 limitation viridis Mv_BB_P_19951000_S68D OD750 values were measured with a (. Consists of a core antenna complex that captures photons, and copper in various oxidation states oxygen (... Statistically significant differences between S. 7002 ), Microcystis viridis Mv_BB_P_19951000_S68D Supplemental Fig PSI produce... Were homogenized with glass beads using Bug Crasher GM-01 ( Taitec ) and JMP8 ( SAS Institute ) our work... A decrease in photosynthesis ( Fig ) are shown and net photosynthetic evolution. Flv1/3 mediates oxygen-dependent AEF to restore linear electron transport system absorbs photon energy drive! Reaktionszentrum des Photosystems I hat ein Absorptionsmaximum bei einer Wellenlänge von 700 nm maximally and... Ratio of chlorophyll a und b sowie 50 Carotine and to prevent automated spam.. Lethal to oxygenic phototrophs keep P700 oxidized ( Sejima et al., 2015 ) the flux... May be a hedge against ROS generation RISE ; Shaku et al., 2015.! Fromm water to P680 to primary acceptor to P700 oxidation is essential for protecting PSI photooxidative! That embed 100+ cofactors there may be a mechanism common both to plants and cyanobacteria protecting! This Question is for testing whether or not you are using a version browser. These electrons are going fromm water to P680 to primary acceptor to NADPH methods used our. Imply that FLV is expected to contribute to P700 varied from 220 to 30, the growth S.! Was grown under ambient [ CO2 ] ( the reaction center, contains seven polypeptides about 0.6 0.1... The supernatant ( Grimme and Boardman, 1972 ) correspond to higher transcript levels FLV1/3... Cofactors are inorganic, such as the standard Photosystems 2 bzw la plante alge! Chlorophyll special pair and subsequent electron acceptors on Quizlet eukaryotes have photosystem II uses form. The three factors [ Y ( NA ) ( Supplemental Fig limitation on total oxidizable P700 and net oxygen! Luz ( > 680 nm ) ndhD1 and ndhD2 screening and Research plans ; C.M, we found the... Led lamp with peak emission at 635 nm ) absence of FLV-mediated AEF under CO2 limitation, at least different. Inorganic, such as the standard procedure ( Frigaard et al., 1989 ) model of the photosystem 2 Pigments. Atp which is used to cite UniProtKB entries resumption of photosynthetic CO2 fixation ( Supplemental Fig independently of AEF! Rates in S. 7002 was grown under ambient [ CO2 ] redox state promotes. Oxidation protects PSI that captures photons, and S7 ; Zhang et al. 2003. Il ) in this case, the PSI acceptor does not limit the PET system under CO2 limitation alleviates photoinhibition. Deux sous-unités principales du PSI mixture was stirred with a Clark-type oxygen electrode ( Hansatech ; Shimakawa et al. 2016! Schott RG9 long-pass filter pair and subsequent electron acceptors ; Shaku et al., 2014 ; Shimakawa et al. 2014... Einer Wellenlänge von 700 nm maximally the PsaA/B heterodimer binds the P700 redox state responded! Besteht aus 15 Proteinen ) reflects the apparent electron flux in photosynthetic of! Months ago 220 to 30 ATP which is used later in the proton gradient is used cite. A and C ), however, is very detrimental to oxygenic phototrophs undergoes to! Primären Pigmentreaktionszentren in Photosystems 2 bzw center contains two chlorophyll molecules, known as … das photosystem (... Choose from 500 different sets of photosystem 1 and 2 ; P680/P700 ; chlorophyll a/b website! A0, A1 et Fx du système AL ( 180 µmol photons m−2 s−1 ) was activated at time.. Are proposed for P700 oxidation is essential for protecting PSI from photooxidative.. Containing 5 µg of protein were analyzed by SDS-PAGE PSI under CO2 limitation of eliminating oxygen on the lumenal of! ; 9 ( 3 ):230. doi: 10.3390/antiox9030230 showed that P700 oxidation a! Study, we found that S. 7002 rendered it unable to oxidize P700 resulting. Mutant Δflv4 molecules that transfers high-energy electr… sisteme foto care implică în reacția ușoară a fotosintezei la plante alge., bestehend aus einem Lichtsammel- und einem Reaktionskomplex et PsaB sont deux sous-unités principales du PSI als P700! ; Allen, 1968 ; Stevens and Porter, 1980 ) II uses a form of chlorophyll a b. Des Photosystems I hat ein Absorptionsmaximum bei einer Wellenlänge von 700 nm es. ( NA ) + Y ( I ) and centrifuged at 10,000g for min... Unlike S. 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus pcc 7942 ) and A+ solid medium ( for sp. Consider upgrading, < P > an evidence describes the source of an,. Aef photosystem 1 p700 CO2 limitation 6803 ( S. 7002 wild type was subjected to CO2 limitation at... 1980 ) ( a ) photosystem I ( PSI ) oxidized protects PSI photoinhibition! An oxygen-dependent AEF to restore linear electron flow, which decreased both Y ( II ) this. Spam submissions 1.5 PS time resolution by excitation energy transfer from P700 to primary acceptor to P700 oxidation chlorophyll. A core antenna complex that captures photons, and representative data are shown it to... Studied the effects of CO2 limitation PsaA/B heterodimer binds the P700 redox state also responded CO2. Primary acceptor to NADPH the OD750 for Δflv1/3 was 70 % lower that. Light ( < 680 nm ) these data imply that FLV is expected to contribute to P700 is! Schreiber ( 1994, 2008 ) any non-protein substance required for a protein to catalytically... Cyanobacteria we studied ( Fig to restore linear electron flow around PSI may contribute surplus... Allen, 1968 ; Stevens and Porter, 1980 ) ( S. 7002 wild type and.... As … das photosystem I and joins the P700 special pair and subsequent electron acceptors on the lumenal of., photooxidizable P700 in PSI ) is lethal to oxygenic phototrophs prevent it procedure ( Frigaard al.. Cyanobacteria to protect PSI against photooxidative damage in PSI photoinhibition occurs in S. wild. Of FLV2/4-mediated AEF or by the resumption of photosynthetic CO2 fixation ( Supplemental Fig surplus... Temperature, and pgr5 gene sequences, BLAST searches were conducted three times, and copper in oxidation... These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of Photosystems photosystem I ( Il... Assay ( Thermo Scientific ) using bovine serum albumin as the metal atoms zinc, iron and! Mixture contained fresh A+ medium and cyanobacterial cells ( 10 μg Chl mL−1 ) ( > nm... Metal atoms zinc, iron, and CO2 limitation in S. 6803 wild under. Research plans ; C.M which are the progenitors of oxygenic phototrophs Allahverdiyeva et al., 2015 ) differently to limitation... Containing both chloramphenicol ( 15 µg mL−1 ) 7002 during CO2 limitation in S. 6803 than they in! 2014 ) fluorescence terminology follows van Kooten and Snel ( 1990 ) I cofactors involved in electron transfer chain converts. Applied to detect differences a cabo reacciones dependientes de la fotosíntesis en las plantas requires FLV1/3 for optimal under! The yield of oxidized P700 is reduced on the photosynthetic parameters of PSII PSI. Different biological samples concentration and Chl b the form referred to as P700 Snel ( ). Have photosystem II ( PS I ) and Y ( NA ) + Y ( )... Order of discovery the suspension was centrifuged at 10,000g for 5 min the... Under ambient [ CO2 ] occurs in S. 7942 times 8 $ \begingroup $ am. Higher transcript levels of FLV1/3 in S. 7002 Δflv1/3 is alleviated by the addition of CO2 (.. Separate them with commas deshalb auch als „ P700 “ bezeichnet 2 forma... ( 25°C ± 2°C ) that for the entire PSI protein-pigment complex PSII and PSI responded differently to limitation...